Objective: Foods incorporating plant sterols (PS) consistently decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), although results vary depending on the PS form and food matrix. The objective was to study the effect of a novel triglyceride-recrystallized phystosterol (TRP) incorporated into fat-free milk on markers of cardiovascular risk compared to unmodified free sterols alone in the same fat-free milk. Methods: Hypercholesterolemic men and women (n = 13 males/7 females; 56 ±10 years; body mass index 27.3 ±5.9 kg/m2) participated in 3 sequential 4-week phases of 480 mL milk consumption. During phase 1 (control) all subjects consumed 2% milk containing no PS, followed by phase 2 with fat-free milk containing free PS (2 g/d fPS) and phase 3 with fat-free milk with TRP (2 g/d). After each phase, determinations of lipoprotein cholesterol distribution, particle concentration via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), apolipoproteins, inflammatory markers, and fat-soluble dietary antioxidants were made. Results: Body mass, body composition, dietary energy and macronutrients, and physical activity were unaffected throughout the study. Compared to the control 2% milk, LDL-C was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by fPS (-9.1%) and was further decreased by TRP (-15.4%); reductions with TRP were significantly greater. Total LDL particle concentration was decreased to a greater extent after TRP (-8.8%) than fPS (-4.8%; p < 0.05). Only TRP significantly decreased serum levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB; -6%), interleukin-8 (IL-8; -11%) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; -19%). Plasma α- and γ-tocopherols and carotenoids, normalized to cholesterol, remained unchanged throughout the study with the exception that β-carotene was lowered by 18%. Conclusion: In summary, TRP in fat-free milk may provide cardiovascular benefits beyond that of fPS by inducing more substantial decreases in LDL cholesterol and particle concentration, associated with declines in markers of vascular inflammation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics