Towards green data center microgrids by leveraging data center loads in providing frequency regulation

W. Qi, J. Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In an electricity grid, imbalance between generation and load should be corrected within seconds so that frequency deviations will not threaten the stability and security. This is especially important for a low-inertia microgrid operated in islanded mode, which is equipped with a limited number of synchronous generators in regulating frequency. To this end, in data center microgrids with limited on-site generators and increased green energy, when isolated from the utility grid, frequency deviation due to generation-load imbalance could be corrected by conventionally generating units as well as data center loads. Focusing on high PV penetrated data center microgrid operated in islanded mode, this paper explores effective control strategies for data center loads to participate in primary frequency response. By analyzing unique operational characteristics of traditional and PV generation units and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) units as well as power consumption characteristics of IT components and cooling systems, the proposed load control strategy design effectively utilizes primary FR capabilities while not compromising data center Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. Numerical simulations via MATLAB/Simulink illustrated effectiveness of the proposed load control strategy in enhancing renewable energy penetration without compromising system stability and security, providing a viable solution for future green data centers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3559-3570
Number of pages12
JournalScientia Iranica
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Towards green data center microgrids by leveraging data center loads in providing frequency regulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this