The Development and Validation of the Glassboro Inventory for Twelve-Step (GIFTS)

Andrew Assini, D. J. Angelone, Damon Mitchell, Faith Shank

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Twelve-step programs are a common tool used to help individuals struggling with addiction(s). Several measures exist to identify affiliation and involvement in these programs; however, most only target a handful of observable behaviors and are potentially missing twelve-step beliefs and behaviors salient to those in the twelve-step community. The current study describes the development of the Glassboro Inventory for Twelve-Step (GIFTS), a comprehensive assessment of twelve-step behaviors and beliefs using “twelve-step friendly” language developed by examining themes from two focus groups with Twelve-step members. Next, we aimed to initially validate the GIFTS, determine subscales, and examine correlations between subscales, addiction-related outcomes, and positive psychology measures. Participants included 285 individuals who were predominantly white (91.6%), female (55%), and an average age of 44 years. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 18 items converging on four factors: Beliefs, Actions, Social Environment, and Higher Power. The GIFTS subscales were internally consistent and correlated with indicators of twelve-step affiliation and measures of positive psychology constructs, providing initial support for the reliability and validity of the GIFTS. This tool can inform future treatment and intervention for individuals struggling with substance use disorders as well as research into the role of twelve-step beliefs and practices in the recovery process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-267
Number of pages15
JournalAlcoholism Treatment Quarterly
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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