Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

Thomas Oakland, Carmelo Callueng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted–introverted, practical–imaginative, thinking–feeling, and organized–flexible. Children in these three countries overwhelmingly favor practical to imaginative styles as well as organized to flexible styles. They also generally favor feeling to thinking styles. Children’s preferences for extroverted and introverted styles are more balanced. Differences between countries and by gender are discussed. Implications for school psychology practice as well as viewing these four bipolar qualities as etic traits also are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)102-115
Number of pages14
JournalCanadian Journal of School Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 11 2015
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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