Temperament styles of children from Pakistan and the United States

Thomas Oakland, Carmelo Callueng, Muhammad Rizwan, Sobia Aftab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical over imaginative, and organized over flexible styles. Although their preference for thinking and feeling styles is balanced, gender differences are significant. Males generally prefer a thinking style and females generally prefer a feeling style. Gender and age differences are found on practical-imaginative and organized-flexible styles. Cross-national differences are found on practical-imaginative and organized-flexible styles. In contrast to children in the US, children in Pakistan are more likely to prefer practical and organized styles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-222
Number of pages16
JournalSchool Psychology International
Volume33
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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