Pancreatic cancer is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality and is predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death by 2030. The cause of this high mortality rate is due to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma’s rapid progression and metastasis, and development of drug resistance. Today, cancer immunotherapy is becoming a strong candidate to not only treat various cancers but also to combat against chemoresistance. Studies have suggested that complement system pathways play an important role in cancer progression and chemoresistance, especially in pancreatic cancer. A recent report also suggested that several signaling pathways play an important role in causing chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer, major ones including nuclear factor kappa B, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor, and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B. In addition, it has also been proven that the complement system has a very active role in establishing the tumor microenvironment, which would aid in promoting tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, and recurrence. Interestingly, it has been shown that the downstream products of the complement system directly upregulate inflammatory mediators, which in turn activate these chemo-resistant pathways. Therefore, targeting complement pathways could be an innovative approach to combat against pancreatic cancer drugs resistance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research
- Pharmacology (medical)