The suitability of the Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC) to replicate field performance of aggregates during construction and trafficking of airfields was assessed. The subbase materials used at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were evaluated. SGC test results at different moisture contents were compared to field performance. The SGC was found to be capable of achieving higher densities than the Modified Proctor method. The SGC densities were similar to that achieved by modern field compaction equipment. The use of the SGC over the Modified Proctor method for determining the compaction characteristics of aggregates is recommended. New SGC-based construction specifications will contribute to minimize trafficking compaction in the field. Material performance test results suggest that excessive trafficking compaction is, in part, due to abrasion and attrition of the aggregate. A comparison of laboratory results with field performance indicates the SGC may not be suitable to reproduce trafficking compaction.