Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified genomic DNA from a patient with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and precocious osteoarthritis revealed a single-base change in exon 11 of the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1), which produces an Arg→ Cys mutation in one allele. The proband is a member of a large Chilean kindred presenting with chondrodysplasia of the hips, knees, shoulders, elbows, and spine associated with severe, early-onset osteoarthritis. All affected individuals exhibit mildly short stature; in addition, five out of seven affected family members display shortened metacarpals or metatarsals. DNA from affected and unaffected family members was PCR-amplified and analysis of restriction digests of the products determined that the mutation segregated with the disease with a lod score of 2.2 at zero recombination. The mutation, which resides in the triple-helical region of type II procollagen at amino acid position 75, is the second example of an Arg→Cys mutation in the COL2A1 gene in heritable cartilaginous disease and is the first example of a point mutation in the amino terminal region of the α1(II) chain, that results in a spondyloepiphyseal dysplastic phenotype.
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