Wave fields with orbital angular momentum (OAM) have been widely investigated in metasurfaces. By engineering acoustic metasurfaces with phase gradient elements, phase twisting is commonly used to obtain acoustic OAM. However, it has limited ability to manipulate sound vortices, and a more powerful mechanism for sound vortex manipulation is strongly desired. Here, we propose the diffraction mechanism to manipulate sound vortices in a cylindrical waveguide with phase gradient metagratings (PGMs). A sound vortex diffraction law is theoretically revealed based on the generalized conservation principle of topological charge. This diffraction law can explain and predict the complicated diffraction phenomena of sound vortices, as confirmed by numerical simulations. To exemplify our findings, we designed and experimentally verified a PGM based on Helmholtz resonators that support asymmetric transmission of sound vortices. Our work provides previously unidentified opportunities for manipulating sound vortices, which can advance more versatile design for OAM-based devices.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes