Perspectives in multilevel research in entrepreneurship

Susana C. Santos, António Caetano

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Entrepreneurial activities are inherently dynamic phenomena, but they have largely been treated as static in research. It is well established that they influence and are influenced by processes at different layers (i.e., individuals, teams, ventures, regions, countries). In this chapter we reflect on the reality of entrepreneurship from a complex systems perspective, and as such as a research field that benefits from a multilevel approach. First, we revisit multilevel theory and we expand on the importance of alignment and consistency in the level of theory, the level of measurement and the level of analysis. Next, we take a glance at several studies that have addressed multilevel issues in different topics of entrepreneurship. Finally, we discuss some assumptions of the multilevel perspective and ongoing challenges.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationResearch Handbook on Entrepreneurial Behavior, Practice and Process
PublisherEdward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9781788114523
ISBN (Print)9781788114516
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)


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