Debilitating chronic nonmalignant pain is often managed using opioid medications. However, with increased use of this drug class comes concern about adverse effects on patients' endocrine function. In the present review, the authors discuss opioid-induced interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal axis, effects on adrenal androgen production, and endocrine deficiency. In addition, the authors describe symptomology for opioid-induced endocrinopathy as well as diagnostic testing options. Treatment modalities for those afflicted with this condition are also described.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of the American Osteopathic Association|
|State||Published - Jan 2009|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Complementary and alternative medicine