Normative References for Graphomotor and Latency Digital Clock Drawing Metrics for Adults Age 55 and Older: Operationalizing the Production of a Normal Appearing Clock

Anis Davoudi, Catherine Dion, Erin Formanski, Brandon E. Frank, Shawna Amini, Emily F. Matusz, Victor Wasserman, Dana Penney, Randall Davis, Parisa Rashidi, Patrick J. Tighe, Kenneth M. Heilman, Rhoda Au, David J. Libon, Catherine C. Price

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Relative to the abundance of publications on dementia and clock drawing, there is limited literature operationalizing 'normal' clock production. Objective: To operationalize subtle behavioral patterns seen in normal digital clock drawing to command and copy conditions. Methods: From two research cohorts of cognitively-well participants age 55 plus who completed digital clock drawing to command and copy conditions (n = 430), we examined variables operationalizing clock face construction, digit placement, clock hand construction, and a variety of time-based, latency measures. Data are stratified by age, education, handedness, and number anchoring. Results: Normative data are provided in supplementary tables. Typical errors reported in clock research with dementia were largely absent. Adults age 55 plus produce symmetric clock faces with one stroke, with minimal overshoot and digit misplacement, and hands with expected hour hand to minute hand ratio. Data suggest digitally acquired graphomotor and latency differences based on handedness, age, education, and anchoring. Conclusion: Data provide useful benchmarks from which to assess digital clock drawing performance in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-70
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume82
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Normative References for Graphomotor and Latency Digital Clock Drawing Metrics for Adults Age 55 and Older: Operationalizing the Production of a Normal Appearing Clock'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this