Norepinephrine: CNS pathways and neurophysiology

G. Aston-Jones, C. A. Meijas-Aponte, B. Waterhouse

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


Norepinephrine (NE) neurons project throughout the neuraxis and convey a variety of functions. The nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) gives rise to a highly branched set of axonal projections that innervate the entire cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and other forebrain areas. This system is involved in arousal, attention, and behavioral flexibility. Neurons in the medulla provide strong NE innervation of the hypothalamus, midbrain, basal forebrain, and amygdala, and function in visceral autonomic processes as well as in anxiety and stress. Actions of NE at target neurons indicate both ionotropic and neuromodulatory, gain-enhancing effects, affording these brain NE systems network-level actions that underlie these important behavioral functions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Neuroscience
PublisherElsevier Ltd.
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9780080450469
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience


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