Nitrogen and fluorine co-doped Ti-oxide, TiO 1.9N 0.05F 0.15 (TiO 2(N,F)), with the anatase structure is prepared by the pyro-ammonolysis of TiF 3. For the first time it is shown that TiO 2(N,F) and anatase-TiO 2 are converted to nanosize-rutile structure by high energy ball milling (HEB). The polymorphs are characterised by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectra. The Li storage and cycling properties are examined by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry in the voltage range 1-2.8 V vs. Li at 30 mA g -1. The performance of TiO 2(N,F) is much better than pure anatase-TiO 2 and showed a reversible capacity of 95 (±3) mA h g -1 stable up to 25 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of ∼98%. Nano-phase rutile TiO 2(N,F) showed an initial reversible capacity of 210 mA h g -1 which slowly degraded to 165 (±3) mA h g -1 after 50 cycles and stabilised between the 50 th and 60 th cycle whereas the nano-phase rutile-TiO 2 (prepared by HEB of anatase-TiO 2) exhibited a reversible capacity of 130 (±3) mA h g -1 which is stable in the range, 10-60 cycles. The crystal structure of anatase TiO 2(N,F) is not destroyed upon Li-cycling and is confirmed by ex situ XRD and HR-TEM.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics