Muscle test comparisons of congruent and incongruent self-referential statements

Daniel A. Monti, John Sinnott, Marc Marchese, Elisabeth J.S. Kunkel, Jeffrey M. Greeson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study investigated differences in values of manual muscle tests after exposure to congruent and incongruent semantic stimuli. Muscle testing with a computerized dynamometer was performed on the deltoid muscle group of 89 healthy college students after repetitions of congruent (true) and incongruent (false) self-referential statements. The order in which statements were repeated was controlled by a counterbalanced design. The combined data showed that approximately 17% more total force over a 59% longer period of time could be endured when subjects repeated semantically congruent statements (p < .001). Order effects were not significant. Over-all, significant differences were found in muscle-test responses between congruent and incongruent semantic stimuli.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1019-1028
Number of pages10
JournalPerceptual and Motor Skills
Volume88
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Sensory Systems

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