Multifunctional Biobased Benzoxazines Blended with an Epoxy Resin for Tunable High-Performance Properties

Alexandra M. Chong, Sarah A. Salazar, Joseph F. Stanzione

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Biobased polybenzoxazines incorporate natural phenolic structures to produce polymers with near-zero shrinkage, high char yields, and high chemical and thermal resistances, garnering great interest as sustainable high-performance polymers. Herein, difunctional and trifunctional benzoxazine monomers, bisguaiacol-furfurylamine (BG-f) and triguaiacol-furfurylamine (TG-f), respectively, were synthesized from renewable guaiacol, vanillin, and furfurylamine using solventless procedures. Benzoxazines were blended with varying weights of epoxy resin and thermally cured to produce benzoxazine-epoxy (BG-f-E and TG-f-E) polymers. These polymers displayed glass transition temperatures ranging from 130 to 157 °C (peak of the loss modulus), thermal stabilities from 299 to 329 °C in both N2 and air, and char yields ranging from 35% to 58%. BG-f-E and TG-f-E with greater benzoxazine content produced stiffer materials exhibiting glassy storage moduli values upward of 3.48 and 3.69 GPa, respectively. BG-f-E polymers displayed higher molecular weight between cross-link values (646 g mol-1 to 981 g mol-1) compared to TG-f-E polymers (316 g mol-1 to 465 g mol-1) and exhibited fracture energies upward of 404 J m-2. These investigations demonstrate the utility of incorporating biobased benzoxazines into benzoxazine-epoxy resin formulations to design sustainable polybenzoxazines with tunable thermal and mechanical properties for high-performance polymer applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5768-5775
Number of pages8
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Issue number17
StatePublished - May 3 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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