The dentition of Cambaytherium was investigated in terms of dental wear, tooth replacement and enamel microstructure. The postcanine tooth row shows a significant wear gradient, with flattened premolars and anterior molars at a time when the last molars are only little worn. This wear gradient, which is more intensive in Cambaytherium thewissi than in Cambaytherium gracilis, and the resulting flattened occlusal surfaces, may indicate a preference for a durophagous diet. The tooth replacement (known only in C. thewissi) shows an early eruption of the permanent premolars. They are in function before the third molars are fully erupted. During the dominant phase I of the chewing cycle the jaw movement is very steep, almost orthal, with a slight mesiolingual direction and changes into a horizontal movement during phase II. The enamel microstructure shows Hunter-Schreger-bands (HSB) in the inner zone of the enamel. In some teeth the transverse orientation of the HSB is modified into a zig-zag pattern, possibly an additional indicator of a durophagous diet.
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