A mouse model for poliomyelitis was used to identify genomic sequences that attenuate neurovirulence of poliovirus strain P2/P712. This type 2 strain is avirulent in primates and mice yet grows as well as virulent strains in cell culture. The approach used was to exchange portions of the genome of the mouse-virulent P2/Lansing strain with the corresponding region from P2/P712 to identify sequences that could attenuate Lansing neurovirulence in mice. A full-length infectious cDNA of P2/P712 was assembled and used to construct recombinants between P2/P712 and P2/Lansing. The results of neurovirulence testing of 11 recombinants indicated that strong attenuating determinants are located in the 5' noncoding region of P2/P712 and a region encoding capsid protein VP1 and 2A(pro), 2B, and part of 2C. An attenuating determinant was further localized to between nucleotides 456 and 628 of P2/P712. A third sequence from P2/P712, nucleotides 752 to 2268, encoding VP4, VP2, and part of VP3, was weakly attenuating. The sequence from nucleotide 4454, approximately halfway through the 2C-coding region, to the end of the P2/P712 genome did not contain attenuating determinants. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that P2/P712 differs from the type 2 Sabin vaccine strain by only 22 nucleotides. Six differences lead to amino acid changes in the coding region, and four differences are in the 5' noncoding region. These studies show that, like the type 1 and type 3 Sabin vaccine strains, the attenuated type 2 strain P712 contains multiple attenuating sequences, including strongly attenuating sequences in the 5' noncoding region of the genome.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science