Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet

Cassandra E. Forsythe, Stephen D. Phinney, Richard D. Feinman, Brittanie M. Volk, Daniel Freidenreich, Erin Quann, Kevin Ballard, Michael J. Puglisi, Carl M. Maresh, William J. Kraemer, Douglas M. Bibus, Maria Luz Fernandez, Jeff S. Volek

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53 Scopus citations

Abstract

We recently showed that a hypocaloric carbohydrate restricted diet (CRD) had two striking effects: (1) a reduction in plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) despite higher intake than a low fat diet, and (2) a decrease in inflammation despite a significant increase in arachidonic acid (ARA). Here we extend these findings in 8 weight stable men who were fed two 6-week CRD (12%en carbohydrate) varying in quality of fat. One CRD emphasized SFA (CRD-SFA, 86 g/d SFA) and the other, unsaturated fat (CRD-UFA, 47 g SFA/d). All foods were provided to subjects. Both CRD decreased serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin, and increased LDL-C particle size. The CRDUFA significantly decreased plasma TAG SFA (27.48 ± 2.89 mol%) compared to baseline (31.06 ± 4.26 mol%). Plasma TAG SFA, however, remained unchanged in the CRD-SFA (33.14 ± 3.49 mol%) despite a doubling in SFA intake. Both CRD significantly reduced plasma palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) indicating decreased de novo lipogenesis. CRD-SFA significantly increased plasma phospholipid ARA content, while CRD-UFA significantly increased EPA and DHA. Urine 8-iso PGF2x, a free radical-catalyzed product of ARA, was significantly lower than baseline following CRD-UFA (-32%). There was a significant inverse correlation between changes in urine 8-iso PGF2x and PL ARA on both CRD (r = -0.82 CRD-SFA; r = -0.62 CRD-UFA). These findings are consistent with the concept that dietary saturated fat is efficiently metabolized in the presence of low carbohydrate, and that a CRD results in better preservation of plasma ARA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)947-962
Number of pages16
JournalLipids
Volume45
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Cell Biology

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