This introduction consists of two sections. The first section focuses on the understanding of the nature and identity of Chinese Buddhist philosophy by delving into the relationship of Chinese Buddhist philosophy with its other. This “other” mainly involves Indian Buddhist philosophy, Daoist and Confucian philosophies, and Western philosophy in modern time. The section pays attention to the subversive process of the Chinese assimilation of Indian Buddhist philosophy, a process of interaction, interchange and interpenetration, which is conditioned by multiple social-historical, linguistic-conceptual and practical factors. The process defies the clear-cut distinction of assimilator and assimilated. The outcome is close to something that is neither originally Indian nor originally Chinese. In modern time this dynamic relationship with the other is extended to Western philosophy. The section conducts a survey of this relationship, and promotes a mutual inclusive attitude towards, and benefiting from, each other. The second section offers the outline for each of the remaining 17 chapters.