Integration of police in the United States: Changes and development after 9/11

Allan Y. Jiao, Harry M. Rhea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


This paper is an explorative study of changes in police organizational structure and operations, and the mindset and culture of individual officers in the U.S. after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The purpose is to understand the extent and nature of police integration, which represents a philosophical and operational departure from the traditional, localized policing feature in the U.S. A small, non-random survey of police officers from departments of various sizes and documentary research of open source materials and government publications are used to gauge this development. Findings suggest that significant changes have taken place in anti-terror training, communications, and in some instances, regionalized operations and partnerships. Most officers surveyed suggest also that their mindset or culture has changed, regardless of the size of the departments they work in. There is no evidence, however, that the traditional, localized police structure is being replaced by a more integrated system for the purpose of fighting terrorism. The police may instead have reinforced the bureaucratic professional crime-fighting model. The implications of these findings and related institutional concepts are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)388-408
Number of pages21
JournalPolicing and Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Law


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