Integration of police in the United States: Changes and development after 9/11

Allan Jiao, Harry M. Rhea

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    14 Scopus citations


    This paper is an explorative study of changes in police organizational structure and operations, and the mindset and culture of individual officers in the U.S. after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The purpose is to understand the extent and nature of police integration, which represents a philosophical and operational departure from the traditional, localized policing feature in the U.S. A small, non-random survey of police officers from departments of various sizes and documentary research of open source materials and government publications are used to gauge this development. Findings suggest that significant changes have taken place in anti-terror training, communications, and in some instances, regionalized operations and partnerships. Most officers surveyed suggest also that their mindset or culture has changed, regardless of the size of the departments they work in. There is no evidence, however, that the traditional, localized police structure is being replaced by a more integrated system for the purpose of fighting terrorism. The police may instead have reinforced the bureaucratic professional crime-fighting model. The implications of these findings and related institutional concepts are discussed.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)388-408
    Number of pages21
    JournalPolicing and Society
    Issue number4
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2007

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Sociology and Political Science
    • Law


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