Influence of epoxidized cardanol functionality and reactivity on network formation and properties

Emre Kinaci, Erde Can, John J. La Scala, Giuseppe R. Palmese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Cardanol is a renewable resource based on cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), which consists of a phenol ring with a C15 long aliphatic side chain in the meta position with varying degrees of unsaturation. Cardanol glycidyl ether was chemically modified to form side-chain epoxidized cardanol glycidyl ether (SCECGE) with an average epoxy functionality of 2.45 per molecule and was cured with petroleum-based epoxy hardeners, 4-4-methylenebis(cyclohexanamine) and diethylenetriamine, and a cardanol-based amine hardener. For comparison, cardanol-based diphenol diepoxy resin, NC514 (Cardolite), and a petroleum-based epoxy resin, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) were also evaluated. Chemical and thermomechanical analyses showed that for SCECGE resins, incomplete cure of the secondary epoxides led to reduced cross-link density, reduced thermal stability, and reduced elongation at break when compared with difunctional resins containing only primary epoxides. However, because of functionality greater than two, amine-cured SCECGE produced a Tg very similar to that of NC514 and thus could be useful in formulating epoxy with renewable cardanol content.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1956
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics


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