Individual free fatty acids have unique associations with inflammatory biomarkers, insulin resistance and insulin secretion in healthy and gestational diabetic pregnant women

Xinhua Chen, T. Peter Stein, Robert A. Steer, Theresa O. Scholl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective We investigated the relationships of maternal circulating individual free fatty acids (FFA) with insulin resistance, insulin secretion and inflammatory biomarkers during mid-pregnancy. Research design and methods The data were drawn from a prospective cohort of generally healthy pregnant women (n=1368, African-American 36%, Hispanic 48%, Caucasian 16%) in Camden, NJ. We quantitatively determined 11 FFAs, seven cytokine/adipokine, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-peptide levels from the fasting blood samples that were collected at 16 weeks of gestation. Multivariate analyses were performed along with separate analyses for each individual FFA. Results High HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and C-peptide (p<0.0001) levels were positively associated with a twofold to fourfold increased risk for developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Negative relationships were found with specific FFAs (molecular percentage, palmitoleic, oleic, linolenic, myristic acids) and HOMA-IR and C-peptide levels (p<0.01 to p<0.0001). In contrast, palmitic, stearic, arachidonic, dihomo-I 3-linolenic (DGLA) and docosahexaenoic acids were positively associated with HOMA-IR and C-peptide (p<0.01 to p<0.0001). The individual FFAs also predicted cytokine/adipokine levels. For example, women who had elevated DGLA (highest quartile) were twice as (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.42 to 2.98) likely to have higher interleukin (IL)-8 (p<0.0001) levels. Conversely, women with high palmitoleic, oleic, and linolenic acid levels had reduced odds (≥2-fold, p<0.01 to p<0.001) for having higher IL-8, IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Conclusion Our results suggest that maternal individual FFAs uniquely affect insulin resistance and secretion. The effects are either direct or indirect via modulation of the inflammatory response. Modifying the composition of FFAs may help in reducing the risk of GDM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere000632
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

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Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Insulin Resistance
Pregnant Women
C-Peptide
Biomarkers
Insulin
Adipokines
Gestational Diabetes
Interleukin-8
Myristic Acids
Linolenic Acids
Mothers
Cytokines
Pregnancy
alpha-Linolenic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Oleic Acid
Hispanic Americans
African Americans
Interleukin-6

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

@article{c4a873434e494453991f122cd8bdbdaf,
title = "Individual free fatty acids have unique associations with inflammatory biomarkers, insulin resistance and insulin secretion in healthy and gestational diabetic pregnant women",
abstract = "Objective We investigated the relationships of maternal circulating individual free fatty acids (FFA) with insulin resistance, insulin secretion and inflammatory biomarkers during mid-pregnancy. Research design and methods The data were drawn from a prospective cohort of generally healthy pregnant women (n=1368, African-American 36{\%}, Hispanic 48{\%}, Caucasian 16{\%}) in Camden, NJ. We quantitatively determined 11 FFAs, seven cytokine/adipokine, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-peptide levels from the fasting blood samples that were collected at 16 weeks of gestation. Multivariate analyses were performed along with separate analyses for each individual FFA. Results High HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and C-peptide (p<0.0001) levels were positively associated with a twofold to fourfold increased risk for developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Negative relationships were found with specific FFAs (molecular percentage, palmitoleic, oleic, linolenic, myristic acids) and HOMA-IR and C-peptide levels (p<0.01 to p<0.0001). In contrast, palmitic, stearic, arachidonic, dihomo-I 3-linolenic (DGLA) and docosahexaenoic acids were positively associated with HOMA-IR and C-peptide (p<0.01 to p<0.0001). The individual FFAs also predicted cytokine/adipokine levels. For example, women who had elevated DGLA (highest quartile) were twice as (adjusted OR 2.06, 95{\%} CI 1.42 to 2.98) likely to have higher interleukin (IL)-8 (p<0.0001) levels. Conversely, women with high palmitoleic, oleic, and linolenic acid levels had reduced odds (≥2-fold, p<0.01 to p<0.001) for having higher IL-8, IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Conclusion Our results suggest that maternal individual FFAs uniquely affect insulin resistance and secretion. The effects are either direct or indirect via modulation of the inflammatory response. Modifying the composition of FFAs may help in reducing the risk of GDM.",
author = "Xinhua Chen and Stein, {T. Peter} and Steer, {Robert A.} and Scholl, {Theresa O.}",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.1136/bmjdrc-2018-000632",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Individual free fatty acids have unique associations with inflammatory biomarkers, insulin resistance and insulin secretion in healthy and gestational diabetic pregnant women

AU - Chen, Xinhua

AU - Stein, T. Peter

AU - Steer, Robert A.

AU - Scholl, Theresa O.

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Objective We investigated the relationships of maternal circulating individual free fatty acids (FFA) with insulin resistance, insulin secretion and inflammatory biomarkers during mid-pregnancy. Research design and methods The data were drawn from a prospective cohort of generally healthy pregnant women (n=1368, African-American 36%, Hispanic 48%, Caucasian 16%) in Camden, NJ. We quantitatively determined 11 FFAs, seven cytokine/adipokine, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-peptide levels from the fasting blood samples that were collected at 16 weeks of gestation. Multivariate analyses were performed along with separate analyses for each individual FFA. Results High HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and C-peptide (p<0.0001) levels were positively associated with a twofold to fourfold increased risk for developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Negative relationships were found with specific FFAs (molecular percentage, palmitoleic, oleic, linolenic, myristic acids) and HOMA-IR and C-peptide levels (p<0.01 to p<0.0001). In contrast, palmitic, stearic, arachidonic, dihomo-I 3-linolenic (DGLA) and docosahexaenoic acids were positively associated with HOMA-IR and C-peptide (p<0.01 to p<0.0001). The individual FFAs also predicted cytokine/adipokine levels. For example, women who had elevated DGLA (highest quartile) were twice as (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.42 to 2.98) likely to have higher interleukin (IL)-8 (p<0.0001) levels. Conversely, women with high palmitoleic, oleic, and linolenic acid levels had reduced odds (≥2-fold, p<0.01 to p<0.001) for having higher IL-8, IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Conclusion Our results suggest that maternal individual FFAs uniquely affect insulin resistance and secretion. The effects are either direct or indirect via modulation of the inflammatory response. Modifying the composition of FFAs may help in reducing the risk of GDM.

AB - Objective We investigated the relationships of maternal circulating individual free fatty acids (FFA) with insulin resistance, insulin secretion and inflammatory biomarkers during mid-pregnancy. Research design and methods The data were drawn from a prospective cohort of generally healthy pregnant women (n=1368, African-American 36%, Hispanic 48%, Caucasian 16%) in Camden, NJ. We quantitatively determined 11 FFAs, seven cytokine/adipokine, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-peptide levels from the fasting blood samples that were collected at 16 weeks of gestation. Multivariate analyses were performed along with separate analyses for each individual FFA. Results High HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and C-peptide (p<0.0001) levels were positively associated with a twofold to fourfold increased risk for developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Negative relationships were found with specific FFAs (molecular percentage, palmitoleic, oleic, linolenic, myristic acids) and HOMA-IR and C-peptide levels (p<0.01 to p<0.0001). In contrast, palmitic, stearic, arachidonic, dihomo-I 3-linolenic (DGLA) and docosahexaenoic acids were positively associated with HOMA-IR and C-peptide (p<0.01 to p<0.0001). The individual FFAs also predicted cytokine/adipokine levels. For example, women who had elevated DGLA (highest quartile) were twice as (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.42 to 2.98) likely to have higher interleukin (IL)-8 (p<0.0001) levels. Conversely, women with high palmitoleic, oleic, and linolenic acid levels had reduced odds (≥2-fold, p<0.01 to p<0.001) for having higher IL-8, IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Conclusion Our results suggest that maternal individual FFAs uniquely affect insulin resistance and secretion. The effects are either direct or indirect via modulation of the inflammatory response. Modifying the composition of FFAs may help in reducing the risk of GDM.

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