In vitro cytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues arising through repeated fish fried oil in human hepatoma Hep G2 cell line

Manoj K. Pandey, Aditya B. Pant, Mukul Das

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17 Scopus citations


Repeated frying of vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods in edible oil is a common practice round the globe. Our studies suggest that repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may lead to hazardous effect on human health. In order to understand the mechanism of toxicity of RFFO extracts containing a mixture of PAHs, the in vitro cytotoxicity assays in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2 was undertaken. In addition to RFFO extract, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and chrysene were used as prototype compounds for heavy and light PAHs, respectively. Doses of BP and chrysene were made in such a way, that it could represent the appropriate content of heavy and light PAHs found in the RFFO extract. Out of total content of PAHs (1240.4 μg/kg) in RFFO, major composition is of light PAHs (854.8 μg/kg) while heavy PAHs showed the concentration of 385.7 μg/kg. Treatment of cells with 1 μg/ml RFFO extract for 48 h showed significant induction in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Exposure of cells to higher doses of RFFO extract (10-100 μg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h caused 3.5-5.2, 4.3-8.5 and 1.8-2.3-fold enhancement in EROD activity, respectively. Further, RFFO extract caused a dose dependent increase (2.1-3.5-fold) in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity at 48 h. Induction of EROD and AHH activity in Hep G2 cells was found to be relatively more following BP or chrysene treatment as compared to RFFO extract. RFFO extract did not cause any significant effect on cell viability at 1 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml. However, at 100 μg/ml concentration RFFO extract significantly decreased the cell viability at 24, 48 and 72 h. Exposure of 10 μg/ml RFFO extract reduced the colony forming ability (CFA) of Hep G2 cells with maximum decrease of 33.5% at 72 h. However, exposure of cells to RFFO extract at highest concentration of assay (100 μg/ml) reduced CFA (35-52%) at 24, 48 and 72 h. RFFO extract (1-100 μg/ml) had no significant effect on growth inhibition of cell up to 48 h of exposure. However, exposure of RFFO extract at all doses showed significant growth inhibition (20-25%) at 72 h. In conclusion, the results suggest that RFFO extract has substantial cytotoxic potential through the metabolic activation process of PAHs generated per se.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)308-316
Number of pages9
JournalToxicology in Vitro
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2006
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology


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