The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST's) mission is to "promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness." To meet this mission, NIST scientists produce a great variety of scientific and technical outputs. This paper presents results from a novel effort to measure usage and impact of a more complete set of outputs, including patents, publications, research data, software, reference materials, and a variety of additional formal and informal scientific outputs. This effort captures a significantly broader set of scientific outputs than traditional citation analysis which typically examines patent-to-patent citations or more recently patent-to-(peer-reviewed) paper citations. This may be of significant importance to NIST as NIST scientists produce a wide variety of scientific and technical outputs beyond patents and papers. Our results indicate that metrics that solely rely on patents issued to NIST inventors understate NIST's true impact on invention and do not capture usage of much of NIST's scientific output by other inventors. Thus, identifying the magnitude and varied usage of different types of NIST outputs represents a significant improvement in NIST impact metrics. The results clearly indicate that different companies, industries and technologies rely on different types of NIST outputs. Therefore, reliance on a limited set of technology transfer tools by either researchers or policy makers creates a risk that NIST knowledge and capabilities will not be transferred to and adopted by businesses and other organizations. Finally, the data developed here suggest a number of new technology transfer metrics that promote shared technology transfer responsibilities and may focus attention on activities that increase the impact of current research without fundamentally altering the infrastructural character of this research.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology|
|State||Published - 2017|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes