The extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone and cartilage presents stem cells with a dynamic and complex array of biochemical and biomechanical signals that regulate proliferation and differentiation into bone and cartilage tissue-producing cells. Due to the multitude of signals present in this ECM, it is challenging to develop biomaterials that accurately recapitulate bone and cartilage tissues, thereby limiting the ability to present cells with multiple factors for enhanced biomaterial-induced osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Conventional techniques to evaluate stem cell responses to engineered materials are laborious and time-consuming, and high-throughput screening techniques can address these limitations. Our review overviews developmental environments and signals present in bone and cartilage ECM, with a focus on applying hydrogel-based screening approaches to identify biomaterial environments that promote stem cell-mediated bone and cartilage tissue regeneration.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- History and Philosophy of Science