Feasibility of a Mobile Group Financial-Incentives Intervention Among Pairs of Smokers With a Prior Social Relationship

Bethany R. Raiff, Amy Arena, Steven E. Meredith, Michael J. Grabinksi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Smoking is associated with a number of chronic health conditions, including cardiovascular disease and various types of cancer. The decision to smoke can be conceptualized as preference for small, immediate rewards (e.g., relief from withdrawal) over larger, delayed rewards (e.g., good health). Contingency management (CM) takes advantage of this preference for immediate outcomes by delivering incentives, usually financial, for making the healthier choice to abstain from smoking. The current study tested the feasibility of harnessing naturally occurring social contingencies associated with smoking cessation to increase the promise of CM in initiating and sustaining long-term abstinence. Pairs of smokers with an existing relationship (i.e., friends, roommates, family, significant others) were recruited to quit together in the context of a smartphone-delivered, group CM intervention. Approximately 50% of interested participants identified a partner who also met criteria to participate, and five pairs (N = 10) completed the study. Using a within-subject design, participants could earn individual financial incentives for submitting breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples twice daily that met targeted goals for abstinence, and they could earn bonus incentives when both members of the pair met their targets together. Nine participants (90%) successfully reduced their mean breath CO during the intervention relative to baseline conditions. Individuals within a pair performed similarly to one another, for better or worse (i.e., both participants abstained, smoked, or missed samples at the same time). The social contingencies of quitting with someone with whom the smoker has an existing relationship may be helpful, but may also introduce unique challenges, particularly with regard to recruitment and treatment retention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-239
Number of pages9
JournalPsychological Record
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Psychology


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