Factors affecting the performance of microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) treated soil: a review

Chao Sheng Tang, Li yang Yin, Ning jun Jiang, Cheng Zhu, Hao Zeng, Hao Li, Bin Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

214 Scopus citations


Soil stabilization technology based on microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) has gained widespread interest in geotechnical engineering. MICP has been found to be able to improve soil strength, stiffness, liquefaction resistance, erosion resistance, while maintaining a good permeability simultaneously. MICP processes involves a series of biochemical reactions that are affected by many factors, both intrinsically and externally. This paper reviews various influential factors for MICP process, including bacterial species, concentration of bacteria, temperature, pH, composition and concentration of cementation solution, grouting strategies, and soil properties. Through this comprehensive review, we find that: (1) the species and strains of bacteria, concentration of bacteria solution, temperature, pH value, and the cementation solution properties all affect the characteristics of formed calcium carbonate, such as crystal type, appearance and size, which consequently affect the cementation degree and distribution in geomaterials; (2) the condition with temperature between 20 and 40 °C, pH between 7 and 9.5, the concentration of the cementation solution within 1 mol/L, and high bacteria concentration is optimal for applying MICP in soil. Under the optimal condition, relatively low temperature, high pH value, and low concentration of cementation solution could help retain permeability and vice versa; (3) the effective grain size ranging from 10 to 1000 µm. MICP treatment works most effectively for larger size, well-graded sand; (4) the multi-phase, multi-concentration or electroosmotic grouting method can improve the MICP treatment efficiency. The grouting velocity below 0.042 mol/L/h is beneficial for improving the utilization ratio of cementation solution. The recommended grouting pressure is generally between 0.1 and 0.3 bar for MICP applications in sand and should not exceed 1.1 bar for silty and clayey soils.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number94
JournalEnvironmental Earth Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Pollution
  • Geology
  • Earth-Surface Processes


Dive into the research topics of 'Factors affecting the performance of microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) treated soil: a review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this