A human member of the immunoglobulin superfamily was shown to mediate entry of several alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex viruses (HSV) 1 and 2, porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). This membrane glycoprotein is poliovirus receptor-related protein 1 (Prr1), designated here as HveC. Incubation of HSV-1 with a secreted form of HveC inhibited subsequent infection of a variety of cell lines, suggesting that HveC interacts directly with the virus. Poliovirus receptor (Pvr) itself mediated entry of PRV and BHV-1 but not of the HSV strains tested. HveC was expressed in human cells of epithelial and neuronal origin; it is the prime candidate for the coreceptor that allows both HSV-1 and HSV-2 to infect epithelial cells on mucosal surfaces and spread to cells of the nervous system.
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