The human genome is contained within the nucleus and is separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins emerin and lamin A cause a number of diseases including premature aging syndromes, muscular dystrophy, and cardiomyopathy. Emerin and lamin A are implicated in regulating muscle- and heart-specific gene expression and nuclear architecture. For example, lamin A regulates the expression and localization of gap junction and intercalated disc components. Additionally, emerin and lamin A are also required to maintain nuclear envelope integrity. Demonstrating the importance of maintaining nuclear integrity in heart disease, atrioventricular node cells lacking lamin A exhibit increased nuclear deformation and apoptosis. This review highlights the present understanding of lamin A and emerin function in regulating nuclear architecture, gene expression, and cell signaling and discusses putative mechanisms for how specific mutations in lamin A and emerin cause cardiac-or muscle-specific disease.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine