A nanopore is the ultimate analytical tool. It can be used to detect DNA, RNA, oligonucleotides, and proteins with submolecular sensitivity. This extreme sensitivity is derived from the electric signal associated with the occlusion that develops during the translocation of the analyte across a membrane through a pore immersed in electrolyte. A larger occluded volume results in an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio, and so the pore geometry should be made comparable to the size of the target molecule. However, the pore geometry also affects the electric field, the charge density, the electro-osmotic flow, the capture volume, and the response time. Seeking an optimal pore geometry, we tracked the molecular motion in three dimensions with high resolution, visualizing with confocal microscopy the fluorescence associated with DNA translocating through nanopores with diameters comparable to the double helix, while simultaneously measuring the pore current. Measurements reveal single molecules translocating across the membrane through the pore commensurate with the observation of a current blockade. To explain the motion of the molecule near the pore, finite-element simulations were employed that account for diffusion, electrophoresis, and the electro-osmotic flow. According to this analysis, detection using a nanopore comparable in diameter to the double helix represents a compromise between sensitivity, capture volume, the minimum detectable concentration, and response time.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)