OBJECTIVE - We investigated the relationship between maternal circulating fatty acids (FAs) and dietary FA intake in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n = 49), women with hyperglycemia less severe than GDM (impaired glucose challenge test [GCT] non-GDM; n = 80), and normal control subjects (n = 98). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A case-control design was nested within a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women. Fasting concentrations of serum total FAs (enzymatic assay) and FA composition (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were determined at entry and the third trimester. Dietary fat intake data were obtained from 24-h recalls. RESULTS - There was a graded increase among groups (control subjects, impaired GCT non-GDM, and GDM) during the third trimester for total FAs and individual FAs, including myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids (P for trend <0.03 to P < 0.001). Similar relationships were observed at entry in total FAs and for four FAs (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids). Women with impaired GCT non-GDM with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 had the highest levels of FAs at entry, whereas women with GDM with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 had the highest levels during the third trimester, and all grouped FAs were significantly different from lean women with impaired GCT non-GDM or control subjects (P < 0.05). Dietary intake of polyunsaturated FAs was decreased, but saturated FAs were increased in GDM compared with impaired GCT non-GDM or control subjects (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS - Abnormalities in fat metabolism are present in both GDM and impaired GCT non-GDM women. Reducing pregravid weight and altering diet might prevent the associated elevation of circulating FAs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing