Differences in maternal circulating fatty acid composition and dietary fat intake in women with gestational diabetes mellitus or mild gestational hyperglycemia

Xinhua Chen, Theresa O. Scholl, Maria Leskiw, Juanito Savaille, T. Peter Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - We investigated the relationship between maternal circulating fatty acids (FAs) and dietary FA intake in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n = 49), women with hyperglycemia less severe than GDM (impaired glucose challenge test [GCT] non-GDM; n = 80), and normal control subjects (n = 98). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A case-control design was nested within a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women. Fasting concentrations of serum total FAs (enzymatic assay) and FA composition (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were determined at entry and the third trimester. Dietary fat intake data were obtained from 24-h recalls. RESULTS - There was a graded increase among groups (control subjects, impaired GCT non-GDM, and GDM) during the third trimester for total FAs and individual FAs, including myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids (P for trend <0.03 to P < 0.001). Similar relationships were observed at entry in total FAs and for four FAs (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids). Women with impaired GCT non-GDM with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 had the highest levels of FAs at entry, whereas women with GDM with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 had the highest levels during the third trimester, and all grouped FAs were significantly different from lean women with impaired GCT non-GDM or control subjects (P < 0.05). Dietary intake of polyunsaturated FAs was decreased, but saturated FAs were increased in GDM compared with impaired GCT non-GDM or control subjects (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS - Abnormalities in fat metabolism are present in both GDM and impaired GCT non-GDM women. Reducing pregravid weight and altering diet might prevent the associated elevation of circulating FAs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2049-2054
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume33
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2010
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing

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