A dot immunobinding assay which uses a polyclonal rabbit anti-Candida immunoglobulin G as the primary antibody and colloidal gold coated with goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G as the secondary antibody for the detection of Candida cytoplasmic antigens is described. It was able to detect as little as 1 ng of total Candida protein per ml when a cytoplasmic extract of Candida albicans was seeded into buffer and 10 ng/ml when the same extract was seeded into pooled human serum. Serial serum samples from four groups of patients were assayed for Candida antigen: (i) 22 patients with candidemia, (ii) 16 patients at high risk for invasive candidiasis, (iii) 3 patients with other deep mycoses, and (iv) 50 hospitalized patients at low risk for serious Candida infection. Of the 22 candidemic patients, 19 had invasive candidiasis and 3 had transient candidemia. Antigenemia was detected in 16 of the 19 patients with invasive candidiasis (including patients with C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida parapsilosis) and in 4 of 16 patients at high risk for invasive candidiasis. There was no detectable antigen in 12 high-risk control patients, 3 patients with transient candidemia, 3 patients with other deep mycoses, and 50 relatively low-risk patients. The sensitivity for detecting invasive disease in candidemic patients and specificity for all patients studied were 84.2 and 94.4%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80%; the negative predictive value was 95.7%. The sensitivity for neutropenic patients with invasive disease was 85.7%. This assay is rapid and accurate and appears to be useful in identifying candidemic patients with invasive candidiasis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)