CatCharger: Deploying In-Motion Wireless Chargers in a Metropolitan Road Network via Categorization and Clustering of Vehicle Traffic

Li Yan, Haiying Shen, Juanjuan Zhao, Chengzhong Xu, Feng Luo, Chenxi Qiu, Zhe Zhang, Shohaib Mahmud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


In metropolitan areas with heavy transit demands, electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to be continuously driving without recharging downtime. Wireless power transfer (WPT) provides a promising solution for in-motion EV charging. Nevertheless, previous works are not directly applicable for the deployment of in-motion wireless chargers due to their different charging characteristics. The challenge of deploying in-motion wireless chargers to support the continuous driving of EVs in a metropolitan road network with the minimum cost remains unsolved. We propose CatCharger to tackle this challenge. By analyzing a metropolitan-scale data set, we found that traffic attributes like vehicle passing speed, daily visit frequency at intersections (i.e., landmarks), and their variances are diverse, and these attributes are critical to in-motion wireless charging performance. Driven by these observations, we first group landmarks with similar attribute values using the entropy minimization clustering method, and select candidate landmarks from the groups with suitable attribute values. Then, we use the kernel density estimator (KDE) to deduce the expected vehicle residual energy at each candidate landmark and consider EV drivers' routing choice behavior in charger deployment. Finally, we determine the deployment locations by formulating and solving a multiobjective optimization problem, which maximizes vehicle traffic flow at charger deployment positions while guaranteeing the continuous driving of EVs at each landmark. Trace-driven experiments demonstrate that CatCharger increases the ratio of driving EVs at the end of a day by 12.5% under the same deployment cost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9525-9541
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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