Barriers Associated with the First/Last Mile Trip and Solutions to Bridge the Gap: A Scoping Literature Review

Ruqaya Emad Alfaris, Deep Patel, Mohammad Jalayer, Mahbubur Meenar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


A first/last mile (FLM) trip is defined as the distance a person travels before boarding a transit stop (first mile) or after disembarking (last mile). FLM trips could encourage or discourage people from riding transit systems, affecting their access to major services such as healthcare, education, employment, and transportation. When considering underserved communities specifically, where people rely heavily on public transportation, challenges to completing the FLM trip often negatively impact quality of life. This paper provides a comprehensive review of previous research efforts discussing the FLM trip. It begins by identifying the outcomes of challenges in completing the FLM trip and the contributing factors to those challenges and subsequently summarizes the various solutions transportation agencies and decision-makers have implemented to address the first and last legs for transit users. The most common solutions include shared mobility services, circulating shuttles, and built environment improvements. This research serves as a valuable reference for transportation professionals to enrich their understanding of the FLM barriers and the potential solutions to bridge this FLM gap.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-48
Number of pages11
JournalTransportation Research Record
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Barriers Associated with the First/Last Mile Trip and Solutions to Bridge the Gap: A Scoping Literature Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this