Autophagy and Apoptosis: Current Challenges of Treatment and Drug Resistance in Multiple Myeloma

Omar S. Al-Odat, Daniel A. Guirguis, Nicole K. Schmalbach, Gabriella Yao, Tulin Budak-Alpdogan, Subash C. Jonnalagadda, Manoj K. Pandey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Over the past two decades, the natural history of multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved dramatically, owing primarily to novel agents targeting MM in the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) pathways. However, the mechanisms of resistance acquisition remain a mystery and are poorly understood. Autophagy and apoptosis are tightly controlled processes and play a critical role in the cell growth, development, and survival of MM. Genetic instability and abnormalities are two hallmarks of MM. During MM progression, plasma malignant cells become genetically unstable and activate various signaling pathways, resulting in the overexpression of abnormal proteins that disrupt autophagy and apoptosis biological processes. Thus, achieving a better understanding of the autophagy and apoptosis processes and the proteins that crosslinked both pathways, could provide new insights for the MM treatment and improve the development of novel therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance. This review presents a sufficient overview of the roles of autophagy and apoptosis and how they crosslink and control MM progression and drug resistance. Potential combination targeting of both pathways for improving outcomes in MM patients also has been addressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number644
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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