Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy causing cancer-related mortality globally. It is the third most common type of cancer detected worldwide. The recent concept of the human body supporting a diverse community of microbes has revealed the important role these microbes play synergistically in maintaining normal homeostasis. The balance between the microbiomes and epithelial cells of the human body is essential for normal physiology. Evidence from meta-genome analysis indicates that an imbalance in the microbiome is prominent in the guts of patients with CRC. Several studies have suggested that the gut microbiota can secrete metabolites [short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), vitamins, polyphenols and polyamines] that modulate the susceptibility of the colon and rectum by altering inflammation and DNA damage. The state of microbiome imbalance (dysbiosis) has been reported in patients with CRC, with an increasing population of 'bad' microbes and a decrease in 'good' microbes. The 'good' microbes, also known as commensal microbes, produce butyrate; however, 'bad' microbes cause a pro-inflammatory state. The complex association between pathological microbial communities leading to cancer progression is not yet fully understood. An altered microbial metabolite profile plays a direct role in CRC metabolism. Furthermore, diet plays an essential role in the risk of gastrointestinal cancer development. High-fiber diets regulate the gut microbiome and reduce the risk of CRC development, and may be fruitful in the better management of therapeutics. In the present review, the current status of the microbiome in CRC development is discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research