Our prior studies have shown that single topical treatment of repeated fish fried oil extract (RFFE), containing various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), to the dorsal epidermis of mice caused enhancement of DNA damage along with higher expression of p53 and p21WAF1 proteins and cell-cycle arrest. In the present study carcinogenic potential of repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) and RFFE was assessed. Single topical application of RFFO (100 μL/animal) and RFFE (100-500 μg/animal) to Swiss albino female mice resulted in significant induction (1.8- to 7.4-fold) of ornithine decarboxylase activity. Twice weekly topical application of methylcholanthrene (MCA) for 24 wk or single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) or RFFO or RFFE, as initiator followed by twice weekly application of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol myristate acetate (TPA) as promoter for 24 wk, resulted in development of skin papillomas after 6, 7, 18, and 9 wk, respectively. The cumulative number of tumors in MCA, DMBA/TPA, RFFE (200 μg)/TPA, and RFFE (500 μg)/TPA groups were 276, 168, 34, and 58 after 24 wk while negligible or minimal initiating activity was noticed in RFFO/TPA group. No tumors were found in animals either given twice weekly topical application of RFFO or a single initiating dose of DMBA followed by twice weekly application of RFFO. Histopathology of skin of animals treated with RFFE/TPA showed marked proliferation of epidermal layers along with abnormal mitosis and multinucleated tumor appearance. Skin of animals in groups RFFO/TPA and DMBA/RFFO showed sloughing and regeneration of epidermal layers, oedema along with proliferation of fibroblasts. Histochemical localization of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase was found to be substantially higher in skin of mice treated with RFFO/TPA and RFFE/TPA. Animals treated with RFFO/TPA, DMBA/RFFO, and RFFE/TPA resulted in significant induction of cutaneous aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) (421-432%), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (252-316%), and glutathione S-transferase (133-245%) activities. Animals treated with RFFO/TPA, DMBA/RFFO, and RFFE/TPA led to significant reduction in glutathione content (39-44%) with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation (254-492%). Animals treated with RFFO/TPA and RFFE/TPA led a significant decrease in catalase (43-69%) and superoxide dismutase (20-31%) activities while glutathione reductase activity was found to be diminished (23-51%) in RFFO, RFFO/TPA, DMBA/RFFO, and RFFE/TPA treated groups. These results suggest that RFFE possess skin tumor initiating activity and that it may have weak promoting activity as well, which may involve free radicals.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research