Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Exercise: A Systematic and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

Leslie Spencer, Troy B. Adams, Sarah Malone, Lindsey Roy, Elizabeth Yost

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

170 Scopus citations


Three questions guided a literature review of the transtheoretical model (TTM) as applied to exercise to address the evidence for stage-matched interventions, the description of priority populations, and the identification of valid TTM measurement tools. One-hundredand-fifty studies were reviewed. Results indicate preliminary support for the use of stage-matched exercise interventions. Most studies have focused on White, middle-class, female populations, limiting the generalizability of their findings. Valid and reliable measures exist for stage of change, decisional balance, processes of change, self-efficacy, and temptations to not exercise; however, more research is needed to refine these measures. Evidence for the construct validity of the TTM as applied to exercise is mixed. When designing and implementing TTM-based exercise interventions, practitioners and policy makers are encouraged to clearly define the term exercise, choose a valid and reliable staging tool, and employ all TTM constructs and not just stage membership.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)428-443
Number of pages16
JournalHealth Promotion Practice
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Exercise: A Systematic and Comprehensive Review of the Literature'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this