Analyzing components of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT): Is treatment entry training sufficient?

Kimberly C. Kirby, Lois A. Benishek, Marylouise E. Kerwin, Karen L. Dugosh, Carolyn M. Carpenedo, Elena Bresani, James A. Haugh, Yukiko Washio, Robert J. Meyers

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28 Scopus citations


Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) assists family members with a treatment-resistant loved one. The most consistent outcome of CRAFT is increased treatment entry of the identified treatment-resistant person (IP). This led us to question whether all 6 components of CRAFT are necessary. In a randomized clinical trial, 115 concerned significant others (CSOs) of an IP received 12-14 sessions of the full CRAFT intervention, 4-6 sessions focused on Treatment Entry Training (TEnT), or 12-14 sessions of Al-Anon/Nar-Anon Facilitation (ANF). We monitored treatment entry, attendance, and substance use of the IP and the CSO's mood and functioning. Data were collected at baseline and 4, 6, and 9 months after the baseline. We found significant reductions in time to treatment entry (‡(2)2 = 8.89, p =.01) and greater treatment entry rates for CRAFT (62%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-6.9) and TEnT (63%; OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.5) compared with ANF (37%), but CRAFT and TEnT did not differ significantly from each other (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4-2.7). No between-group differences in IP drug use were reported by CSOs, but days of drug use decreased over time for all groups (F(3, 277) = 13.47, p <.0001). Similarly, CSO mood and functioning did not differ between the 3 conditions but improved over time (p <.0001 for all significant measures). We replicated the results of previous trials demonstrating that CRAFT produces greater treatment entry rates than ANF and found similar treatment entry rates for CRAFT and TEnT. This suggests that treatment entry training is sufficient for producing the best established outcome of CRAFT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)818-827
Number of pages10
JournalPsychology of Addictive Behaviors
Issue number7
StatePublished - Nov 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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