Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid) is derived from traditional medicinal plants, such as cashew nuts, and has been linked to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and radio- sensitization activities through a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. Because of the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in these cellular responses, we postulated that anacardic acid might interfere with this pathway. We found that this salicylic acid potentiated the apoptosis induced by cytokine and chemotherapeutic agents, which correlated with the down- regulation of various gene products that mediate proliferation (cyclin D1 and cyclooxygenase-2), survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cFLIP, clAP-1, and survivin), invasion (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1), and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), all known to be regulated by the NF-κB. We found that anacardic acid inhibited both inducible and constitutive NF-κB activation; suppressed the activation of IκBα kinase that led to abrogation of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; inhibited acetylation and nuclear translocation of p65; and suppressed NF-κ-B-dependent reporter gene ex-pression. Down-regulation of the p300 histone acetyltransferase gene by RNA interference abrogated the effect of anacardic acid on NF-kB suppression, suggesting the critical role of this enzyme. Overall, our results demonstrate a novel role for anacardic acid in potentially preventing or treating cancer through modulation of NF-κB signaling pathway.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology