An x-ray photoemission electron microscopy study of the formation of Ti-Al phases in 4 mol% TiCl3 catalyzed NaAlH4 during high energy ball milling

Tabbetha Dobbins, Mike Abrecht, Youaraj Uprety, Kristan Moore

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12 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study reports reaction pathways to form TiAlx metallic complexes during the high energy ball milling of 4 mol% TiCl3 with NaAlH4 powders determined using local structure analysis of Ti x+ and Alx+ species. Using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), the oxidation state of Al x+ and Tix+ and the crystalline compounds existing in equilibrium with NaAlH4 were tracked for samples milled for times of 0 (i.e. mixing), 5, and 25 min. XPEEM analysis of the Al K edge after 5 min of milling reveals that Al remains in the 3+ oxidation state (i.e. in NaAlH 4) around Ti0-rich regions of the sample. After 25 min of high energy milling, Ti0 has reacted with Al3+ (in nearby NaAlH4) to form TiAlx complexes. This study reports the pathway for TiAlx complex formation during milling of 4 mol% TiCl3 catalyzed NaAlH4 to be as follows: (1) Ti 3+ reduces to Ti0 (with Al3+ near Ti 0 regions) and (2) Ti0 reacts with Al3+ in NaAlH4 to form TiAlx complexes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number204014
JournalNanotechnology
Volume20
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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