As the number of devices connected to the Internet of things (IoT) surges, the amount of data explodes. Therefore it not only increases the bandwidth load of data transmission but also aggravates the computing and storage load of a cloud platform. At the same time, the traditional computing paradigm centered on cloud computing cannot meet the real-time requirements in many application scenarios. The emergence of edge computing can solve the problems of realtime data processing and network bandwidth occupation in the current IoT scene. In this paper, according to the characteristics of IoT, such as fragmented data, heterogeneous network, and limited energy consumption, the architecture of an IoT edge computing system is constructed to suit better an IoT scene. In addition, the application of edge computing key technologies such as virtualization, edge intelligence, computing offload, collaborative scheduling and micro-services in resource-constrained IoT scenarios is analyzed in detail. Finally, the functions and application of energy consumption monitoring and optimization to a central air-conditioning system are analyzed and summarized, which is a typical application of edge computing in the context of the IoT.