A Meta-Analytical Review of PAD Within Retail Environments: An Abstract

Nina Krey, Jennifer A. Espinosa, Joanne T. Cao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


The physical store environment is an essential factor that contributes to the overall shopping experience of consumers (Babin and Darden 1995). Specifically, consumer behavioral outcomes are shaped by elements within retail environments that can evoke emotional responses (e.g., Chaudhuri and Ligas 2009; Dawson et al. 1990; Matilla and Wirtz 2001). The classical environment model by Mehrabian and Russell (1974) incorporates a primary emotional response that can be classified as pleasure, arousal, or dominance (PAD). The PAD dimensions are assessed with an 18-item semantic differential scale covering emotional response ranges, including happy-unhappy, stimulated-relaxed, and dominant-submissive responses. Considering the vast application of PAD in the retail literature, the overall goal of this research is to better understand the impact of PAD on atmospheric research. Furthermore, we try to clarify which dimensions are most commonly applied in atmospheric studies and provide insights into which dimension most strongly relates to outcome variables.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDevelopments in Marketing Science
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages1
StatePublished - 2018

Publication series

NameDevelopments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science
ISSN (Print)2363-6165
ISSN (Electronic)2363-6173

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Marketing
  • Strategy and Management


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